Tuesday, July 10, 2007

Epicurus and the gods?

I have lately been perplexed about questions related to the nature of pleasure and pain and have turned to several sources in this inquiry, among them the Greek philosopher of hedonism: Epicurus. An enjoyable website, which models itself as “a modern on-line version of the Garden” writes that Epicurus helped “lay the intellectual foundations for modern science and for secular individualism... His world-view is an optimistic one that stresses that philosophy can liberate one from fears of death and the supernatural... [emphasis added].” In other parts of the website, the author writes that future Epicurean thinkers like John Locke and Isaac Newton reverted to “intellectual contortions... to make room for God in their metaphysical systems”, in opposition to “modern science and modern social organization” which do away with deity altogether. The author of this website assumes that, even if Epicurus himself was not an atheist, then his philosophy naturally lends itself and evolved into secular humanism and that the Master would surely agree with such progress.

Admittedly, I have not read all of the primary sources concerning Epicurus, but his own Letter to Menoeceus does not suggest to me that Epicurus would approve of modern secular humanism. The first thing Epicurus writes after exhorting Menoeceus to follow his teachings is, “believe that God is a living being immortal and blessed, according to the notion of a god indicated by the common sense of mankind.” Epicurus continues, “it is that the greatest evils happen to the wicked and the greatest blessings happen to the good from the hand of the gods, seeing that they are always favorable to their own good qualities and take pleasure in men like themselves, but reject as alien whatever is not of their kind.” Finally, towards the end of his letter, the first thing that Epicurus suggests a “superior” man possess is “a holy belief concerning the gods” and that he be “altogether free from the fear of death.” So, according to this letter of Epicurus’, God (or the gods) does exist though “the multitude” might not have correct beliefs about him, he punishes the ungodly and upholds the pious, and the ideal man must correctly understand God.

Hence I am puzzled that the author of the above website, as well as perhaps other contemporary Epicureans, sees Epicurus as the harbinger of atheistic/agnostic secular humanism. Even the entry in the Oxford Classical Dictionary perplexes me, which states that in the Epicurean system the gods “take no thought for this cosmos or any other” and that men should not “[expect] favours or punishments from them.” Epicurus’ own Letter to Menoeceus seems to say something different.


Alex L. said...

Vincent Cook, the webmaster of www.epicurus.net, was kind enought to reply at length over e-mail to my blog post. I have duplicated his response below:

"Dear Alex:

"Thank you for taking the time to comment on my website on your blog (http://www.trojanwalls.blogspot.com/). I will mention a few things that I hope will clarify the relationship of secular humanism, secular individualism, and Epicureanism.

"Firstly, please understand that I use the phrase "secular individualism" rather than the phrase "secular humanism" to describe Epicureanism--I deliberately didn't use the phrase "secular humanism" because there are different kinds of secularism. I would note that "secular humanism" as defined by various manifestos, etc. has an activist and mildly collectivist connotation that is inconsistent with Epicureanism. For this reason, I object to those who try to link Epicurus to all the other
baggage that is associated with the "secular humanist" label even though I think Epicurus is indeed extremely important in the history of secularism.

"Secondly, Epicureanism is secular in the sense that Epicurus and his
ancient followers strongly denied such basic theistic concepts as divine providence, the existence of an after-life, and even such variants as reincarnation. Moreover, Epicurus laid a great deal of emphasis on the
psychological dangers of embracing such religious concepts. Lucretius
even extravagently praised Epicurus as the savior of mankind for liberating us from such concerns.

"While Epicurus did formally admit the existence of the gods and the
utility of piety (atheism and impiety, by the way, were capital offenses in ancient Athens), he stripped his gods of those characteristics that modern monotheistic religions consider to be defining characteristics of
divinity, and he stripped pious rituals of any external efficacy. In other words, rigorous theologians today would very likely classify Epicurus as an atheist, even if Epicurus himself would protest that he is not one.

"Epicurus's gods are entirely natural entities, creatures consisting of fluxes of particles in outer space that just happen to directly impress our minds as supremely happy beings. As such, ancient Epicureans argued that it is desirable to contemplate such creatures as role models, but we should not be led astray into thinking that they have any power over us, nor into thinking that they even take notice of our affairs.

"Ancient Epicureans sharply condemned the serious disturbance of one's tranquillity that follows from imagining divine intervention in human affairs. Likewise, Epicurean ethics is entirely independent of the gods; what matters in the pursuit of happiness is conforming to one's
own psychological nature, not the persuasion of some meddlesome deity that your behavior and/or intentions makes you worthy of heaven, etc. Finally, Epicurean empiricism sharply contradicts all forms of faith, undercutting the basis for all modern monotheistic religions.

"While Epicurus's secularism may seem inconsistent by modern standards, perhaps strict atheism isn't so essential to secularism as is a refusal to be cowed by the unseen powers described in religious myths. After all, even modern secularists count many agnostics among their ranks. If
someone refuses to be intimidated by the creatures of religious
imagination, we generally don't deny him the appellation "secular" even if he entertains the notion that some of these creatures might actually exist.

"Thirdly, it was widely suspected in ancient times that Epicurus was in fact flirting with atheism, even though he remained within the letter of the Athenian law. Unlike Socrates, Epicurus didn't think there was any compelling moral reason to make a martyr of himself. Epicurus always
preferred to cultivate his own circle of friends rather than goad the public into making him drink hemlock, so it is not unreasonable to suppose that Epicurus's defense of the gods is a bit contrived.

"As I document on the history page and in various ancient texts on my
website, many monotheists and polytheists considered Epicurus's
doctrines, especially his rejection of divine providence and his guilt-free ethics, to be a severe challenge to their own beliefs. Perhaps the best evidence of Epicurus's secularism is the frenzied and often vitriolic efforts of all manner of religious apologists to attack Epicureanism and Epicureans for the irreligion of Epicurean atomism and
hedonism, and later to physically destroy Epicurus's writings and
persecute anyone professing his ideas.

"When you contrast the harsh treatment of Epicurus to the far kinder treatment of Aristotle, Plato, and even the Stoics by the emergent monotheist cultures, I think it is fair to say that Epicurus, because of the content of his philosophy, was treated very much like an atheist even if he technically wasn't one by his own definitions. The foundations of secularism were evident in his beliefs, even if cloaked in a belief in so-called "gods" that are more strongly reminscient of
the blobs of sentient energy encountered by the Starship _Enterprise_ in_Star Trek_ than of the omnipotent, omniscient and omnibenevolent creator and dictator of the universe described in modern Sunday schools.

"I must apologize for not being able to register with Google to reply on your blog directly, but in the interests of promoting further discussion please feel free to post this message (minus my e-mail address, since I
can do without the spam) on the blog. I have also taken the liberty of forwarding this message to my Epicurean Philosphy List (EPL) where this can be discussed at greater length; visitors to my website (http://www.epicurus.net/) will find links to pages with information about EPL and about my personal contact information.

"Best regards,
Vince Cook"

Steven Ikier said...

Hello Alex,

Vincent's reply is an excellent summary of the Epicurean position on the gods, but I would like to add a technical point in response to your original post.

As Vincent wrote, "[a]ncient Epicureans sharply condemned the serious disturbance of one's tranquillity that follows from imagining divine intervention in human affairs." Modern Epicureans as well, I would add! As such, it is my opinion that you have misread the second passage from the Letter to Menoeceus which you quote.

Please consider two others translations of this passage; the first from epicurus.info:

"The gods ... are not like how most people describe them. Most people embellish their notions of the gods with false beliefs. They credit the gods for delivering rewards and punishments because they commend those who share their own ways and condemn those who do not. Rejecting the popular myths does not make one impious; preaching them is what demonstrates impiety."

And another translation, by Eugene O'Connor, from "The Essential Epicurus":

"[The gods] are not such as the majority think them to be. For they do not maintain a consistent view of what they think the gods are. The impious man is not he who confutes the gods of the majority, but he who applies to the gods the majority's opinions. For the assertions of the many concerning the gods are conceptions grounded not in experience but in false assumptions, according to which the greatest misfortunes are brought upon the evil by the gods and the greatest benefits upon the good. Men being always at home with their own virtues, they embrace those like themselves and regard everything unlike themselves as alien."

Epicurus holds that the intervention by the gods in the affairs of men is a false belief, and it is, in fact, impious to attribute such behavior to any deity. I leave it to you to unravel the many possibilities of this interpretation.



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